Fátima in the New State

"The parallel development of the sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima and of the New State was not just a historical accident. In fact, while the governments of the First Republic, with the exception of the Sidonist interregnum (1917-18), either implicitly or explicitly and militantly opposed the worship of the Virgin, Salazarism encouraged the expansion of the sanctuary. In the first decades of his rule, Salazar’s position in relation to religion dovetailed with the essential principles of his regime, which was marked by a balance between positivist rationalism and a belief in unquestionable dogmas. The unending dispute between reason and faith, which had been at the root of the controversy that surrounded the apparitions of the Virgin during the First Republic, was one of the political paradoxes that Salazar sought to resolve both in his political practice and in his public speeches." -- excerpt, Patricia Vieira, Portuguese Film, 1930-1960: The Staging of the New State Regime.

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THE PORTUGUESE DICTATORIAL REGIME: THE CASE OF PAUL VI’S VISIT TO FÁTIMA

Duncan Simpson, excerpt:

"The little-studied visit to Fátima of Paul VI on 13 May 1967 is an event of particular significance for the understanding of the nature of rela- tions between Church and State under Salazar. In order to fully grasp its implications as to the place of the Catholic Church in the Estado Novo, we shall first establish the historical background to the visit. A brief history of the relations between Church and State since 1928 will allow us to broadly define these as relations of persistent collaboration seemingly evolving towards loosened association."

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Salazar and Charismatic Leadership*. Catholic Nationalism and the Portuguese New State

From article by Ángel Rivero:

"In this paper I would like to show that, although Max Weber defines charismatic authority as a form of authority derived from the extraordinary qualities of an individual to mobilize political support, the “gift of grace”, charisma, has a slightly different political and religious meaning in the Catholic world. In the case of Salazar, charisma cannot be linked with a capacity to messianic mobilization but with his self presentation as a receiver of Divine Grace to perform God’s will. Salazar was endowed, in his view, with the mission of developing an authoritarian State, a New State, congruent with the traditional religious values of rural real Portugal. Thus, here, charisma is what makes Salazar the saviour of an old nation, the most loyal Catholic Nation, created by Divine Providence, under the sign of the Cross and the Sword, against the infidels, the Moors."

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