HENRIQUE GALVÃO, 1895-197O: ASPECTS OF A EURO-AFRICAN CRUSADE

"This study deals with various aspects of the life of Henrique Galvão (1895-1970) but principally with the seizure of the liner Santa Maria (1961) in opposition to the regime of Dr Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970). It describes the ship’s hijacking and explores its ramifications within the context of the 1961 Angolan nationalist uprising, Portuguese internal politics and Luso-American relations. A brief discussion of Portuguese history from 1910 to 1933 provides the background to Galvão’s affiliation to Salazar’s regime and his subsequent apostasy. The most salient features of Galvão’s dissidence are discussed: his report on conditions in Portuguese Africa (1947-49); involvement in opposition politics (1951-59); the hijacking of an air liner for propaganda purposes (1961) and appearance before the United Nations (1963). These events are connected to the themes of colonial administration, anti-colonialism, African nationalism, anti-Salazarist politics and the African policy of the United States (1961-63)." -- excerpt from "HENRIQUE GALVÃO, 1895-197O: ASPECTS OF A EURO-AFRICAN CRUSADE" by Luis Miguel Solla de Andrade Peres, 2009

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On student movements in the decay of the Estado Novo

hroughout the period of nearly two decades nicknamed the ‘long sixties’, youth practices and speeches obtained their own autonomy and frequently reached the top of radical criticism regarding the socio-economic, cultural and political mod- els that were in place. Mainly spreading from universities, these dynamics articu- lated themselves at certain times quite significantly with specificities according to each country’s own reality. This article intends to testify to the main characteristics of the student protests that took place in Portugal in the final years of the Estado Novo (New State, 1932–74) and also to note the distances and approaches between these student movements and those that were developing during that time in the democratic western countries. (Excerpt from article by Miguel Cardina)

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The roar of the waves: The hijack of Santa Maria. The attack to S. Paulo prison. Military discontent. Civil struggles.

The year of 1961 was, for the Salazar regime, a year of all dangers, and it became the dictator's annus horribilis. In different contexts, several events marked that year, announcing the end of the Portuguese colonial-fascist regime. As one the the CES thematic guidelines focus on deepening the knowledge on the Portuguese-speaking space - and its historical connections - this set of sessions aims at exploring a space which is united by several histories and struggles. (Excerpt from 2011 Conference, Fernando Rosas, Historian)

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