To further his vision of Portugal, Salazar advocated the creation of paramilitary organizations for training the young, like the Mocidade Portuguesa (Portuguese Youth), formed in 1936. Uniforms conveyed a sense of collective discipline and nationalism in public exhibition and parades. The age groups in Mocidade Portuguesa, each with their own uniforms, were:
- 7-10 years, Lusitos and Lusitas
- 10-14 years, Infants
- 14-17 years, Vanguardistas
- 17-25 years, Cadets
Waning by the 1970s, Mocidade Portuguesa was abolished after the Carnation Revolution in 1974.