Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

Rosa Cabecinhas and João Feijó, "Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths," International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol. 4 (1) (2010). Excerpt:

The last colonial empire collapsed thirty-five years ago. The Portuguese was the most enduring European empire and the last one to fall. The empire only finished in 1975, a time usually considered as “postcolonial.” After the end of World War II, self-determination movements spread all over Asia and Africa. Attempting to stop the tide, the dictatorial regime of António de Oliveira Salazar—the New State (1926–74)—renewed its efforts to ensure the continuity of Portugal’s African empire.1 The idea of empire was firmly implanted in national consciousness and served as a main source of national pride. Meanwhile, in Portuguese Africa, resistance against colonial rule intensified from the late 1950s on, culminating in an armed liberation struggle (1961–74), which started in Angola and spread to Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, leading to the collapse of colonial rule and, in a related process, to the end of dictatorship in Portugal (Lloyd-Jones and Pinto 2003).

The Revolution of April 25, 1974, which became known as the Carnation Revolution, brought about deep changes in both internal and external Portuguese politics.